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This report provide more detail on each Neighbourhood in England, click on the tabs above to see more details.
This chart shows property sales recorded with the Land Registry. Note this may include non-domestic properties. The Minimum (cheapest), Median (middle), Mean (Average), and Maximum (most expensive) sale are shown for each year./p>
This chart shows the number of properties sold per year.
Since 2008, houses in the UK have had to get an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) when they are sold or rented. An EPC requires a qualified assessor to visit the dwelling and take measurements of the building's construction and energy efficiency, which makes EPCs a valuable tool for understanding the energy use and carbon emissions from our homes. However, EPCs have significant problems. Research has shown that the EPC grades are not great at predicting real-world energy use and that as many as 80% of EPCs contain at least one error. EPCs are also not a representative sample of houses as they are only required under specific circumstances (e.g., when a house is sold). EPCs are likely to under-estimate the uptake of retrofit measures, as many people make home improvements just after buying a house. Thus, the EPC may be out of date shortly after it is issued. For all these reasons, EPC data should be treated with care. We have chosen to include it here as it is the best available data and helps draw attention to the low quality of housing data in the UK. For this tool, we took an extract of the EPC database from 2020 and summarised the results for each LSOA. In cases where a property had more than on EPC, only the most recent EPC was considered. Some of the data presented here are scraped from the text description written in the EPCs, so some missing data and double counting may exist. That means this data must be seen as indicative rather than conclusive.
This chart indicates what proportion of homes have an EPC. This is not a perfect measure as the EPC's defection of a property is different from the 2011 Census's definition of a dwelling, and homes may have been constructed or demolished since 2011. However, it gives a rough measure of whether the EPC data represents a high or low proportion of all the homes in this LSOA.
The EPC score is the headline result rating homes on a scale from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient). To meet the climate targets, we need all homes to be A or B graded as soon as possible.
About 35% of heat is lost through a house's walls, so insulating the walls is an excellent way to reduce energy use. Most homes built after the 1920s have cavity walls that are easy and cheap to insulate with blown glass fibre wool. However, care must be taken to install the insulation correctly to prevent damp crossing the cavity, particularly in places that get driving rain or have stone cavity walls. In these properties, expanding foam of polystyrene bead insulation can be more expensive but reduce the risk of damp and mould growth. Older homes with solid walls require either external or internal insulation. These options are more expensive than cavity wall insulation, and internal insulation requires redecoration of the rooms.
About 25% of heat is lost through the roof of the property. For homes with pitched roofs, loft insulation is one of the cheapest and easiest forms of insulation. The uptake of loft insulation has been reasonably high due to low cost and government incentives. However, many homes have less than the recommended minimum of 300mm of insulation, and flat roofs remain challenging to insulate.
About 15% of heat is lost through the floors of homes. EPCs are especially bad at recording the floor construction, so there is often a lot of missing data. Many homes built before the 1950s have suspended timber floors, which are relatively simple to insulate either by accessing the crawl space under the floor and attaching insulation to the underside or by lifting the floorboards. Homes built after the 1960s are more likely to have solid concrete floors. These are difficult to insulate as you either have to dig into the concrete slab or insulate on top of the slap, raising the floor level.
Around 10% of heat is lost through windows and doors. Most houses now have double-glazing, although many have the less efficient early forms of double-glazing. New double or triple glazing is an expensive option for energy saving. However, it is often installed as it is perceived to add value to the property.
Most homes in England have gas central heating, often with a condensing boiler. If properly installed and maintained, these have high efficiencies (above 90%). As gas is a fossil fuel, we need to replace all gas boilers with low carbon heating systems such as heat pumps as soon as possible. While heat pumps are even more efficient than gas boilers, they are significantly more expensive to install (around £10,000 for a new heat pump vs £2,000 for a new gas boiler). It is more common to find homes heated with oil boilers, storage heaters, or even coal fires off the gas grid. These heating types are both high carbon and expensive to operate, so heat pumps can be more financially attractive.
This chart shows the efficiency rating of heating systems. An efficient heating system uses less energy than an inefficient system to provide the same amount of heating. Note that a very efficient heating system may not be low carbon. For example a modern condensing gas boiler has an efficiency of over 90% yet is it still a high carbon heating source as it is fuelled by gas.
Heating controls help save energy by turning off the heating when it is not needed. Common types of heating control include thermostats, timers, and Thermostatic Radiator Valves (TRVs). Upgrading heating controls can be a low-cost way to get a small reduction in energy use.
This chart shows the mix of building types based on the EPC data and should be compared with the similar chart based on the 2011 census in the housing tab. The EPC data is more up to date but does not cover all homes within an LSOA.
This chart shows the number of crimes recorded in this neighbourhood per year. Note that not all crimes have a recorded location, and so do not appear on the map or in this chart.